浅谈中职英语教学中的课堂提问

黄建舜

(沅江市职业中专湖南沅江413100)

从事职高英语教学工作已有多年的时间了,多年来,对职高学生的英语基础水平和学习态度多有了解,也常常有同行抱怨职高学生难教,其中英语最为突出。甚至一些教师为每次喊学生答问而学生都答不出来而恼怒,索性干脆不提问题,课堂上全由老师唱独台戏,满堂灌,导致方法单一,课堂气氛沉默,教学效果差。对这种方法,我不敢苟同。我认为我们应在教学中总结职高学生的特点,摸索针对职高学生的教学方法,这是非常有利于课堂教学的,我经常使用的方法之一就是注重课堂提问的技巧。一位教育家说过:“中小学教师若不谙熟发问技术,他的教学是不易成功的。”课堂提问不仅可以加强师生交流,提高课堂效益,还能成为刺激学生积极思维的有效手段,因此熟练掌握英语教学中的课堂提问技巧就显得非常必要。要掌握这些技巧就必须做到以下几点:

一、优化课堂提问的内容

课堂提问的内容直接影响提问的效果,选择好的内容提问可以激发学生追求知识本源的动力,在课堂提问的 内容设计中应该做到以下几点:

1.问学生感兴趣的问题。

“学习的最好刺激,是对所学材料的兴趣”。英语教学中潜伏着大量学生感兴趣的“触点”。像很多阅读篇章中存在大量关于英美风土人情、风俗习惯、奇闻轶事等,抓住这些“触点”进行提问,往往能加深学生对整个篇章的理解。

在高一教材《基础模块》一第三单元中有一篇关于Black Friday的阅读理解文章,在上课前我设计了三个问题:

1).Do you know Thanksgiving Day?When is it?

这个问题大家都知道,但具体时间很多人搞不清,我就给他们讲述感恩节的来历,一下子就把学生的注意力吸引过来了,然后强调感恩节的时间(每年的11月的第4个星期四)。学生也印象深刻,很快就记住了。

2).Why do people call the day after Thanksgiving Day Black Friday?

Because on that day,it means the early opening and late closing of shops.

3).What are there so many people in the shop on that day?

Because many things are on sharp discount.

带着这些好奇再来进行阅读,对于文章的理解就容易得多。最后让学生看两部关Black Friday购物的短片,使学生又增加了感性认识。

2.问学生感觉有点难的问题

课堂提问的问题如果过于简单,提问就会流于形式,不利于培养学生分析问题的能力;但问题也不能太难,不能超出学生能力范围,要符合学生的知识发展水平。如《基础模块》一第八单元有这样一篇短文:

People in different places give directions in different ways.In Japan,people use landmarks in their directions instead of street names.In the United States,people may use distances and time to give directions.People in Greece will lead you to the place in person since most tourists have difficulty in understanding the Greek language.Well,the most effective way to ask for and give directions is through body language.This will help you everywhere.

这段短文我设计了这样三个问题:

(1).If you don’t know how to get to a place,what would you do?

(2).How to give directions in Japan,the United States and Greece?

(3).What is the most effective way to ask for and give directions?

第一个问题询问日常生活中问路的用语,差不多每个学生都遇到过这样的事,很容易回答;第二个问题让学生知道日本人、美国人、希腊人怎样问路,注意他们之间有什么习惯上的不同;最后一个问题问最有效的问路方式是什么。回答了这三个问题,短文的意思就基本搞清了。

3.问具有创造性的问题

在课堂上设计一些发散思维题,启发学生根据自己的知识水平和思维特点去分析,常常能得到一些创造性的见解,从而达到激发活跃课堂,扩张思维的效果。如《基础模块》二第九单元有一篇短文:

Everything is made in China!

It was a week after Christmas.After breakfast Mrs.Lawson started to sort all the gifts in her son’s room.She suddenenly noticed that almost all the gifts were made in China.”Ah.that’s interesting”.thought Mrs.Lawson.

After lunch,she drove to a shopping center to buy a pair of new shoes for her son.and candles for her daughter’s birthday cake,She was surprised to find that all the shoes there were from China and all the candles were also from China.”well that surprising!”said Mrs.Lawson to herself.

In the afternoon she drove back home.As she sat on the sofa in the living room for a good rest,she look around and was even m,ore surprised.The label “made in China”is everywhere.It is seen on the screen of the TV,in the pile of tennis shoes by the door.in the colorful lights on the Christmas tree.on the lovely dress of the doll….

At dinner time,the door bell rang.It was Mr. Lawson”Honey,I just bought a new CD,The band has a very funny name ,Look”.Mrs.Lawson was most surprised,on the cover of the CD she found”Everything is made in China”!

这篇短文我设计了这样几个问题:

1 Did Mrs.Lawson find anything interesting about the Christmas gifts?

2.Did the shopping experience surprise Mrs.Lawson?

3.Did the label in the living room make Mrs. Lawson very surprised?

4.Did Mr Lawson give Mrs.Lawson the biggest suepeise?

5.From this passage,what do you think of China?what are you going to do in your study?

第一个问题比较简单;第二个问题是Mrs.Lawson吃惊;第三个问题Mrs.Lawson是很吃惊;第四个问题Mrs.Lawson是大吃一惊.这三个问题层层递进,让学生对短文有很好的了解。最后一个问题是学生自主发挥题,从中国产品遍天下说明我们的祖国富强了,这种局面来之不易,我们应该好好学习,使祖国更加繁荣昌盛,教师在此激励学生努力学习,达到了提问的效果。

二、掌握课堂提问的时机

在课堂上提问如果不掌握好时机,往往会使学生无所适从或是破坏了一堂课的整体性和系统性,一般说来,上课前该问一些容易引起学生兴趣的问题或有助于导入所要讲内容的问题;讲课的过程当中则宜问一些有关文章细节,有关局部理解方面的问题;而课后则一般应从整体理解的基础上问一些有关文章的中心思想,或者是需要逻辑推理,激发创造思维的问题。当然课堂提问的时机掌握不是一成不变的,必须要根据当时的实际情况做到“见机行事”。

三、注意课堂提问的引导

有了明确的教学目标和教学方向的前提下,教师应该通过一个个具体问题将教学内容转化为问题情境,课堂提问必须体现教学目标的要求,而执教者难免依据个人的兴趣随意提问,而不考虑问题的含金量;而学生又会因发散思维而导致回答不着边际,不能体现教学目标的要求。因此教学者必须对所提问题有所控制,对学生的回答加以引导。在教学过程中教师对某一内容,某一知识点提高问题,适度向其外延扩展,有助于促进学生的思维,扩充学生的知识面,但此时要特别注意对学生的引导,谨防失控。如高二《基础模块》三第3单元有一篇文章:

As an overseas student,I got a chance to work in Australian companies.During the part-time employment at Warner Village Theme Parks,I learned to work with a team and the great teamworkenabled me to work under pressure.Many people working with me are local university students.It impressed me that many Australian students earn their tuition fees through part-time employment.

Like most overseas students,I have tried a lot of part-time jobs, such as being a Chinese tutor,a kitchen hand,and a housekeeper.The various part-time jobs offered me rich experiences and made my life more colorful.Life is difficult,but I’velearned to support myself in a foreign country,and do not need financial help from my parents any more,I feel very happy and inspired..

Studying in a foreign country is not easy,but I will never give up.After going through the past years.I become more confident in overcoming difficulties.I don’t know what other difficulties I will have.but I will never give up.I strongly believe that all my efforts will bring me great success.

.这里我设计的问题有六个:

1.Why could the writer work under pressure?

2.Why does the writer feel happy and inspired?

3.Why does the writer say”I will never give up”?

4.Do you need finacial support from your parents?

5.Have you ever tried part-time jobs?

6.Will you do as Australian students do?

.前三个问题是作者在海外学习的生活写照及感想,答案就在文中;后三个问题则是发散思维题,学生可能有多种答案,但老师要加以正确的引导,让大家不仅掌握短文的大意,而且更重要的是让学生知道从短文中学到了什么,对自己的学习有什么借鉴,做到既学了知识又学了做人,提高了课堂的教学效果。

可见课堂提问时,执教者如不进行引导,会使学生的回答离题万里,而适当的引导可以更直接地实现教学目标的要求。

四、增强课堂提问的乐趣

课堂提问若总是围绕一些数字,地名,人名等进行,势必导致课堂气氛的沉闷,影响学生思维的积极性。此时就应该及时问些轻松,有趣的问题活跃气氛,鼓励学生大胆回答,即使答错也可以幽他一默,而不致于造成学生尴尬的局面。

五、避免课堂提问的误区

课堂提问做到以上几点外,还要避免犯忌:

(1).忌问题太简单,学生无须思考就能回答,这样不利于培养学生的思考和分析能力。

(2).忌问题太难,如果问题与学生的知识水平脱节,超出学生的能力范围,则难以培养学生的学习热情和积极性。

(3).忌问题不着边际,课堂上教师不能随意发问,与教学内容脱节,无法体现教学的严肃性。

(4).忌借问题惩罚不专心的学生,避免造成学生的逆反心理。对不专心的学生只能稍加暗示或提醒。

(5).忌对学生的回答不作任何评价,对回答正确的要及时进行表扬、鼓励,而对错误的答案也要先肯定其合理的一面,再进行具体分析,找出错误的原因,让学生心服口服。

总之,谙熟课堂教学过程中的提问技术,对教学的成功与否起关键的作用,课堂提问不仅是一种教学手段,更是一门教学艺术,因此每位教师都应该不断地进行理论学习,并从实践中总结出有效的方法,这样的教学才是成功的。

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